- Non-cytotoxic assay arrests further apoptotic activity via caspase inhibition.
- Cell permeablity permits direct visualization of cytosolic apoptotic events.
- Apoptotic cell population does not diminish over time.
- Add reagent directly to cells. No special buffer or media needed. No preparation of cell lysates required. Simple wash procedure.
- Works in diverse cell lines: human, rodent, Drosophila.
- Can be performed in conjunction with Annexin staining, TUNEL, antibody staining, or with other APO LOGIX reagents on the same population of cells.
- Permits high through-put screening. Protocol can be adapted for ex vivo as well as in situ experiments.
- Yields both quantitative and qualitative results. Gives strong signal with little background noise.
- Mark activity across the range of caspase proteins. Poly-caspase and caspase-specific assays to target caspases 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, or 10 are available.
- Applications - Flow Cytometry, Fluorescence Plate Reader, Fluorescent Microscopy
Granzyme B activates procaspase-3 which signals a mitochondrial amplification loop for maximal apoptosis - Sunil S. Metkar, Baikun Wang, Michelle L. Ebbs,Jin H. Kim,Yong J. Lee, Srikumar M. Raja, Christopher J. Froelich - Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 160, Number 6, 875-885, 2003
Small-molecule XIAP inhibitors derepress downstream effector caspases and induce apoptosis of myeloid Leukemia cells - Carter, Gronda, Wang, et.al - Blood, May2005, Vol 105, No 10, pp4043-4050
Fenretinide enhances rituximab-induced cytotoxicity against B-cell lymphoma xenografts through a caspase dependant mechanism - Gopal, Pagel, et.al - Blood, May 2004, Vol 103, No 9, pp 3516-3520.
Anoxia Is Necessary for Tumor Cell Toxicity Caused by a Low-Oxygen Environment - Papandreou, Krishna, Kaper, et.al - Cancer Research 65, 3171-3178, April 15, 2005
Thimerosal induces DNA Breaks, Caspase 3 Activation, Membrane Damage and Cell Death in Cultured Human Neurons and Fibroblasts - Baskin, Ngo, Didenko - Toxicological Sciences 74, 2003
IFN- Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells in Vivo and in Vitro - Wall, Burke, Barton, Smyth, Balkwill - Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 9, 2487-2496, July 2003
The removal of extracellular calcium: a novel mechanism underlying the recruitment of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in neurotoxicity - Xin, Zhao, Gang, et.al - European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21, Issue 3, pg 622 - Feb 2005
Deficiency of the Cyclin Kinase inhibitor p21(WAF-1/CIP-1) Promotes Apoptosis of Activated/Memory T Cells, and inhibits spontaneous systemic Autoimmunity - J. Exp Medicine; Vol 199, Number 4, Feb 16 2004; 547-557
Ligand-independent redistribution of Fas (CD95) into lipid rafts mediates clonotypic T cell death - Jagan R Muppidi & Richard M Siegel - Nature Immunology 5, 182 - 189 (2004)
Attenuation of apoptosis in enterocytes by blocking potassium channels - Levitan, Makhina, et. al - Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol (July 14, 2005).
Induction of Apoptosis Using Inhibitors of Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase-ß and Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of Human Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas - John M. Pagel, Christian Laugen, Lynn Bonham, Robert C. Hackman, et.al - Clinical Cancer Research Vol. 11, 4857-4866, July 1, 2005.
Inhibition of PI3K, mTOR and MEK signaling pathways promotes rapid apoptosis in B-lineage ALL in the presence of stromal cell support - Bertrand, Spengeman, Shelton, et.al - Leukemia (2005), 19, 98-102.
Tumor Suppressor DAL-I/4. IB and protein Methylation cooperate in inducing apoptosis MCF-7 breast cancer cells - Molecular Cancer 2006, 5:4
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